Abdullah Mert
Dr. Ushak University,
The faculty of Education, Turkey

Individuals go through various problem-solving and decision-making processes to deal with the obstacles and problems they face in their daily lives. Development of decisions that are made in adolescence and problem-solving skills used throughout the life of the individual should be considered important. The purpose of the research is examining the effect of emotional intelligence training on the problem solving and decision-making skills of adolescents. This study is a real experimental model with a pretest-posttest control group. The study was conducted with the participation of 22 students attending secondary school in accordance with this model. In the conducted pretest results, which are firstly used for emotional intelligence, problem solving and decision-making skills were used in the experimental and control groups. Emotional Intelligence was revealed to be effective in the development of decision-making skills.

  1. Adair, J. (2000). Decision-making and problem-solving. (Trans. Nurdan Kalaycı) Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.
  2. Agran, M., Blanchard, C., Wehmeyer, M., & Hughes, C. (2002). Increasing the problem-solving skills of students with developmental disabilities participating in general education. Remedial and Special Education, 23, 279-288.
  3. Arenofsky, J. (2001). Developing your problem-solving skills. Career World, 29(4): 18-21.
  4. Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18(1), 13-25.
  5. Bar-On, R. (2005). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence. In P.Fernández Berrocal and N. Extremera (Guest Editors), Special issue on emotional intelligence, Psicothema, 17. www.eiconsortium.org, (Date of access: 27.12.2019).
  6. Benson, N., Ginsburg, J., Grand, V., Lazyan, M., Weeks, M. & Collin, C. (2012). Psychology. İstanbul: Alfa.
  7. Bingham, A. (2004). The development of problem-solving skills of children. A.F. Oğuzkan, Translated, İstanbul: MEB Yayınları.
  8. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002). Factor Analysis: Basic Terms and their usage in scale development. Education Management Journal, 32, 470-483.
  9. Churney, A. H. (2001). Promoting children’s social and emotional development: A follow up evaluation of an elementary school-based program in social decision making/social problem-solving. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62(1-A):75.
  10. Connor, P. E. & B. W. Becker. (2003). Personal value systems and decision-making styles of public managers. Public Personnel Management, 32(1), 155-180.
  11. Cüceloğlu, D. (1991). Human and behavior: basic concepts of psychology. Istanbul: Remzi Bookstore.
  12. Çelik, E., Tuğrul, B. & Yalçın, S.S. (2002), Kindergarten children aged four to six years of emotional facial expression of their parents and teachers perceive themselves. Hacettepe University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 22 (22), 29-39.
  13. Çolakkadıoğlu, O., & Güçray, S. S. (2007). The effect of decision-making skill training programs on self-esteem and decision-making styles. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER), 26, 61-71.
  14. Datler, W. (2013). Emotion und beziehung als motor von entwicklung. In: Seibel, K., F.v., Ploch, B. (Eds.): Wie kinder lernen. Gemeinsame grundlagen wirksamer förderung in kita und grundschule: Konzepte und perspektiven für die praxis. Lernen vor Ort: Offenbach, 36- 47.
  15. Denham, S., A, Blair, K., A, DeMulder, E., Levitas, J., Sawyer, K., & Auerbach-Major, S. (2003). Preschool emotional competence: pathway to social competence? Child Development. 74(1),238–56
  16. Denham, S. A. (1998). Emotional development in young children. New York: Guilford Press
  17. Di Fabio, A. & Kenny, M. E. (2012). The contribution of emotional ıntelligence to decisional styles among Italian high school students. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(4), 404-414. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072712448893.
  18. Dow, G. T., & Mayer, R. E. (2004). Teaching students to solve ınsight problems: evidence for domain specificity in creativity training. Creativity Research Journal, 16(4), 389–402. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326934crj1604_2
  19. Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6(3-4), 169–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699939208411068.
  20. Ekman, P.& Davıdson R. J. (1994). The nature of emotion. New York: Oxford University
  21. Elstein, A., S. & Schwartz, A. (2002). Clinical problem solving and diagnostic decision making: Selective review of the cognitive literature. British Medical Journal 324 (7339), 729–732.
  22. Erkan, S. (2002). Example group guidance activities. Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık.
  23. Exley, K. & Dennick, R. (2004). Giving a lecture–from presenting to teaching. London: Routledge Falmer.
  24. Frey, K., S., Hirschstein, M., K. & Guzzo, B., A. (2000). Second step: preventing aggression by promoting social competence. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 8(2), 102-112.
  25. Frijda, N. H. (2000). The psychologists’ point of view. Handbook of Emotions, (2nd ed.), 59-74.
  26. Furnham, A. (2003). Belief in a just world: Research progress over the past decade. Personality and İndividual Differences, 34(5), 795-817.
  27. Gardner, H. & Hatch, T. (1990). Multiple intelligences go to school: educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. CTE Technical Report Issue No.4. Center for Children and Technology, Education Development Center, Inc. http://www.edc.org/CCT/ccthome/ reports/tr4.html
  28. Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
  29. Goleman, D. (2011). Why is emotional intelligence more important than IQ? (34. Baskı), İstanbul: Varlık Publication.
  30. Goleman, D. (2007). Social intelligence: The new science of human relationships. New York: Random House Publishing.
  31. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Psychosomatic Medicine, 8(95), 160-168.
  32. Green, A. J. K., & Gilhooly, K. (2012). Problem solving. In N. Braisby & A. Gellatly (Eds.), Cognitive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 301–333). New York: Oxford University Press
  33. Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Carta, J. J. & Higgins, S. K. (2006). Developing a general outcome measure of growth in the cognitive abilities of children 1 to 4 years old: the early problem-solving indicator. School Psychoiogy Review, 35(4), 535-551.
  34. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrated review. Review of General Psychology, 2 (3), 271-299.
  35. Gross, J. J. & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: conceptual foundations. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. UK: Guildford Press.
  36. Harrod, N. R. & Scheer, S. D. (2005). An exploration of adolescent emotional intelligence in relation to demographic characteristics. Adolescence, 40(159), 503.
  37. Heppner, P.P. & Peterson, C.H. (1982). The development and implications of a personal-problem solving inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 66-75.
  38. Isen, A. M. (2001). An influence of positive affect on decision making in complex situations: theoretical issues with practical implications. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 11(2), 75-85.
  39. Jonassen, D. H. (2012). Designing for decision making. Education Tech Research Dev 60, 341–359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-011-9230-5
  40. Karabulut, A. (2012). Emotional intelligence: Bar-on scale adaptation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Dokuz Eylul University Institute of Educational Sciences, İzmir.
  41. Kardaş, N., Anagün, Ş., S. & Yalçınoğlu, A., P. (2014). Adaptation of problem solving inventory for the elementary school students: confirmatory factor analysis. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 13 (51), 182-194.
  42. Korkut, F. (2002). Problem solving skills of high school students. Hacettepe University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 22, 177-184.
  43. Köksal, A. (2007). Curriculum development study for developing emotional intelligence in gifted children (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Istanbul University, Institute of Social Sciences, Istanbul.
  44. Kushniruk, A., W. (2002). Evaluation in the design of health information systems: Applications of approaches from usability engineering. Computers in Biology and Medicine 32(2): 141-149.
  45. Lazarus, R. S. (1995). Psychological stress in the workplace. Occupational Stress: A Handbook, 1, 3-14.
  46. Lazarus, R.S. (1994). Passion and reason: making sense of our emotion. New York: Oxford University Press
  47. Le Doux, J. (2006). Emotional brain. İstanbul: Pegasus Publishing.
  48. Mann, L., Harmoni, R., & Power, C. (1989). Adolescent decision-making: The development of competence. Journal of adolescence, 12(3), 265-278.
  49. Mayer, J. (2001). Emotional intelligence and giftedness. Roeper Review, 23 (3), 31- 137.
  50. Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications. New York: Basic Books, 3-34.
  51. Mayer, J. D., Dipaolo, M. & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: a component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54(3-4), 772-781.
  52. Means, B., Salas, E., Crandall, B., & Jacobs, T. O. (1993). Training decision makers for the real world. In G. A. Klein, J. Orasanu, R. Calderwood, & C. E. Zsambok (Eds.), Decision making in action: Models and methods (pp. 306–326). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  53. MEB. (2007). Ministry of Education examples of primary and secondary education institutions classroom guidance program secondary education activities. Ankara: Ministry of Education Publishing.
  54. Miller, M.& Nunn, G., D. (2003). Using group discussion to improve social problem solving and learning. Education, 121(3), 470–475
  55. Morgan, C. T. (2004). Introduction to psychology. Ankara: Hacettepe University Psychology Department Publications.
  56. Oliva, P, F. (1988). Developing the curriculum (Second Ed.). Boston: Scott, Foresman and Company.
  57. Petrides, K. V. & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: behavioral validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European Journal of Personality, 17 (1), 39-57.
  58. Plano Clark, V. L., & Creswell, J. W. (2015). Understanding research: A consumer’s guide. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
  59. Rollinson, D. (2002). Organisational behaviour and analysis an ıntegrated approach (Second Ed.). Pearson Education Ltd: Essex
  60. Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality 9 (3), 185–211
  61. Schilling, D. (1996). S.O. activities for teaching emotional intelligence. Level II: Middle School. Spring Valley, CA: Inner choice Publishing
  62. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of personality and social psychology, 45(3), 513.
  63. Shao, K., Yu, W., and Ji, Z. (2013). The relationship between EFL students' emotional intelligence and writing achievement. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 7(2), 107-124.
  64. Sternberg, R. J. (1988). The triarchic mind: a new theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  65. Stevens, M., (1998). Problem solving. (Translated by: A. Çimen). Ankara: Timaş Publishing.
  66. Stubbs, K., E., & Wolff, S. B. (2008). Emotional intelligence competencies in the team and team leader: A multi-level examination of the impact of emotional intelligence on team performance. Journal of Management Development, 27(1), 55-75.
  67. Suliman, A. M. & Al-Shaikh, F. N. (2007). Emotional ıntelligence at work: links to conflict and ınnovation. Employee Relations, 29 (2), 208-220.
  68. Şahin, N., Şahin, N. H. & Heppner, P. P. (1993). The Psychometric properties of the problem-solving inventory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 379-396.
  69. Tufan, Ş. (2011). The effect of developed emotional intelligence training programme on the levels of emotional intelligence of 9th grade students at high school (Unpublished master dissertation). Ankara University, Ankara.
  70. Ünsal, Y., & Ergin, İ. (2011). Problem solving strategies using problem solving process in science education and an example application. Military Academy Journal of Defense Sciences, 10 (1), 72-91
  71. Welton, D. A., & Mallan, J. T. (1999). Children and their world: strategies for teaching social studies. NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  72. White, J.C. (2010). The impact of emotions on service quality, satisfaction, and positive word-of-mouth ıntentions over time. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(5), 381– 394.
  73. Wong, C. & Law, K. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: an exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243- 274.
  74. Yaşarsoy, E. (2006). Investigation of the effect of emotional intelligence development program on behavioral problems of trainable mentally retarded students. (Unpublished master's thesis). Çukurova University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Adana.
  75. Yates, J. F. (2003). Decision management: How to assure better decisions in your company. San Francisco, CA: Joissey-Bass.
  76. Yeşilyaprak, B. (2001). Emotional intelligence and their implications in terms of education. Education Management in Theory and Practice., 7(25), 139-146.

[1] This study was partially presented in the 21st International Psychological Counseling and Guidance Congress in Antalya, Turkey.