Master of Azerbaijan Technical University
Azerbaijan Technical University, Baku, Azerbaijan
Abstract:. In the wireless sector, the lack of bandwidth in global channels has given impetus to the study and research of wireless access technology, popularly known as Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). Massive MIMO is one of the new generation technologies that combines antennas in both transmitter (transmitter) and receiver to ensure high transmission and energy efficiency using relatively simple processing. The article provides an extensive overview of the technologies used in 5G and 6G networks, reflecting the mass MIMO systems. The main problems facing the mass MIMO system and, in addition, crucial open research issues that will guide future research in mass MIMO systems for 5G and other new technology applications are discussed.
Key words: 5G, 6G, New generation technologies, Massive MIMO, Mass MIMO, Wireless communications
The article provides a brief overview of the evolution of mobile networks from the first generation (1G) to the sixth generation (6G) networks, as well as technologies that create key opportunities for 5G networks. The advantages of mass MIMO are explained and a brief description of the importance of mass MIMO for future generation networks is provided. Thus, for the next generation of mobile networks, the topic of active research on mass MIMO systems is presented and allows to form a general opinion by partially summarizing the main ideas.
Massive Multiple Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) is the most modern and exciting wireless communication technology to meet the needs of 5G and other network technologies. Massive MIMO is a branch of MIMO technology that allows the use of hundreds and even thousands of antennas connected to a base station to improve spectral efficiency and performance. The technology combines antennas, receiver blocks and broadband to provide higher capacity and speed for existing 5G. The ability of mass MIMO to increase performance and spectral efficiency has made it a crucial technology for emerging wireless standards. Massive MIMO is a technology designed for 5G and later generation networks.
The period of application of mobile communication technologies began in the early 1980s, and since then, mobile communications have undergone a great evolution in recent decades. Mobile network systems have evolved from 1G to 5G and moved on to the next stages of development. All mobile networks consist of base stations, user equipment (telephones, etc.) and main networks.
The first 1G mobile networks were introduced in the early 1980s, and this communication system used only analog signals for voice services. 1G systems used Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and were capable of transmitting data up to 2.4 kb / s. The sound qualities were poor due to the high interference capability. 1G systems include Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS), Total Access Communication System (TACS) and Nordic Communication System (NMTS).
Second-generation (2G) mobile networks were introduced in the early 1990s, and the technology was considered a digital version of 1G networks. In addition to voice services, it was possible to provide Short Message Service (SMS) and basic e-mail services. These systems used Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and provided data transmission from 14.4 kb / s to 64 kb / s. 2G systems include the Global Mobile Communications System (GSM) and the IS-95 CDMA. However, the dynamics (mobility) and hardware support of 2G networks are limited.
3G mobile networks were introduced in the early 2000s and are based on GSM and CDMA. These systems, along with voice, Multimedia Message Support (MMS) and SMS services, offer web browsing on mobile phones. 3G systems include Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS) and WCDMA technologies. Smartphones became popular in the mid-2000s. 3G networks provide data transmission up to 384 Kb / s, which required a large channel (bandwidth) and complex infrastructure.
4G mobile networks were introduced in early 2010. 4G networks offer data transfer speeds of up to 100 Mb / s and can handle more data traffic with better service. 4G networks include applications such as video conferencing, online gaming, and mobile television. Includes 4G systems (WiMAX), Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) Worldwide Interoperability, and also supports older generation communication networks. The frequency band of 4G technology is very wide, and this advantage allows it to work effectively on 4G networks of high-end 4G-enabled mobile phones.
Currently, 5G mobile networks are just being introduced and aim to be 100 times faster than current 4G networks. It is expected to offer 5G networks, data throughput of up to 10 Gb / s, low latency (in milliseconds) and higher reliability. Imagine being able to download an HD movie in a matter of seconds. This technology can support many Internet of Things (IoT) devices and smart vehicles. Efficient wireless communication technology, which can increase performance without increasing channel width or unit volume density, is essential to meet the sustainable demands that 5G faces.
6G mobile networks are completely wireless networks without any restrictions. This technology is currently under development and will provide incredible transfer speeds in the terabit range. 6G technology requires a smart antenna, large memory in mobile phones and huge optical networks. 6G networks will be cellless and will enable artificial intelligence in wireless networks. It is not clear what frequency band 6G networks will use, but it is clear that a higher frequency range is needed to increase the amount of data required for 6G networks. While 5G needs to use a frequency of more than 30 GHz and up to 300 GHz (millimeter waves), 6G is connected at a higher frequency in the THz bands (300 GHz to 3 THz).
The Massive MIMO concept has reached new heights every year since it was introduced a few years ago. Thanks to its great benefits in the field of 5G standardization, wireless has become one of the hottest research topics in the community. Existing MIMO systems could not cope with the mass flow of wireless data traffic. Recent experiments in the mass MIMO system have proven their value by showing record spectral efficiency. A 2015 study by Lund University and the University of Bristol found a spectral efficiency of 145.6 bit / s / Hz for 22 users, each modulated with 256-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (256-QAM), according to a 2015 study by Lund University. shows a massive MIMO test field of 100 antennas created in. The improvement in spectral efficiency was enormous compared to 3 bit / s / Hz, which is an advanced requirement of International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) for 4G.
The hardware application of the mass MIMO system has also been successfully tested, and it has been proven that these systems can be installed with both digital base channel and analog RF circuits with very simple and inexpensive equipment. In addition, many pre-detection, detection, planning, and equalization algorithms have been developed to further reduce costs and power. All these innovations in the mass MIMO and the visible possible directions of development further increase the attractiveness of this technology, which is required outside of 5G and wireless networks.
Massive MIMO systems can have an infinite number of antennas in base stations. However, between 64 and 128 were generally used in the mass MIMO base station. Recently, Sprint Network, working with companies such as leader Ericsson, Nokia and Samsung Electronics, deployed 128 antenna mass MIMO systems (64 antennas for signal reception and 64 antennas for signal transmission). One of the notable advantages of mass MIMO is that the UE has a single antenna and a simple antenna design, while we only need an advanced device at the base station. Thus, a higher antenna number for mass MIMO is only needed at the base station. Existing smartphones have between 2 and 4 antennas, but for mass MIMO it is enough to have only one antenna in the UE.
Our existing phones do not support mass MIMO systems, and it is important to be able to get a mass MIMO ready phone. Even if you buy a phone that supports mass MIMO, it won't be useful unless you have a wireless network that supports mass MIMO. However, many phones now use MIMO technology to achieve higher data rates and reliability. Each antenna placed on the phone is used to transmit and receive data. Each antenna means an additional mobile number so that your device can send and receive more data at a time. Thus, the application of this technology will increase download speeds. Most advanced phones today come with 4 × 4 MIMO and are twice as fast as 2 × 2 MIMO phones as they will have two free antennas. Currently equipped with iPhone XR, iPhone X and iPhone 11, 2 × 2 MIMO, iPhone 11 pro, iPhone 11 pro-Max ,. Even if your phone does not support the mass MIMO system, you can still use the mass system to make communication more reliable and sensitive. In general, this technology is superior to achieve reliable communication and higher speed information exchange, but the use of mass MIMO technology requires additional payment.
An effective mobile spectrum is needed in a wireless communication system. Mass MIMO wireless technology is a solution to this global demand. Massive MIMO technology combines antennas in both transmitter and receiver to provide high spectral and energy efficiency using a relatively simple design. Given the need for an efficient spectrum in the world, a limited amount of research has been done on mass MIMO technology. Thus, there are still some open research problems in the development of new wireless communication technologies.
This article provides an overview of mass MIMO systems that reflect the technological features of 5G and other modern network technologies. Although the giant MIMO offers great opportunities for 5G and 6G networks, it should be noted that the application of this technology creates various problems with the spatial placement of the equipment used.
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