AND MODERN TURKISH LITERARY THOUGHT
Gunesh Zakir gizi Guliyeva
Department of History of Azerbaijan Literature of BSU, dissertation on the program of the doctor of philosophy.
Teacher of Azerbaijan State Pedagogical College under Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University, email@example.com
Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh's multifaceted creativity is connected with modern world civilization in all its parameters. Its artistic and philosophical essence can be better understood in the context of relations with the Turkic world. Because the poet is a great Turk in terms of genes and blood, the evils of Turkism are more obvious in his poetry. "Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh taught this nation how to live, how to burn, and melted himself like a candle in this way ... he became a worthy successor of Azerbaijani poetry with more than a thousand years of poetic traditions, went ahead of philosophical intellectual poetry, at a time when the Soviets cut the sword He wrote "Gulustan", spoke about the tragedy of Azerbaijan divided into two parts ... in short, he became an artist who led Azerbaijani poetry in a unique way in the twentieth century.
The works of the poet, which are deeply connected with the ideology of Azerbaijanism and call for national self-consciousness, were very valuable contributions to the development of our literature. (Nizameddin Shamsizade). Bakhtiyar Vahabzade wrote verse dramas, which are very perfect from the artistic and philosophical point of view and have an important place in the history of our original theater. In Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh's poetry, the unity of beliefs appears in the unity of thought. The poet called on the people to call for the immortal ideas of such a genius as Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who called for freedom, liberty, patriotism, attachment to the land, "there is no share in the land" and peace in the country. “Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh's concept of language draws parallels in Turkish literature as the concept of language of Yahya Kamal and Najib Fazil, who wrote works in a language spoken and understood by the people. Najib Fazil, like Vahabzadeh, criticized the pressure on the language from abroad ”(Murat Deger, Bakhtiyar Vahapzadeh's Literary Criticism in the 1980s, Turkish World, Language and Literature Magazine, 2017. 34). The author also saw a similarity with Yahya Kamal's understanding of language. "I also love Yahya Kemal because" Turkish is a place of worship where people look up and hope. Turkey is a country that I have longed for all my life, rejoiced in its successes, mourned its failures, and when I mentioned it, it gave strength to my arms, strength to my heart and light to my eyes ”(Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, Elisam Award presentation ceremony, Ankara).Introduction
Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, Alibay Huseynzadeh, Yusif Akchura, Ismayil bey Gaspirali, Alimardan bey Topchubashov, Ahmadbey Agaoglu, Ziya Goyalp, Mohammad Amin Rasulzadeh always inspired the views of great personalities on Turkism, dedicated all his works to the protection and recognition of Turkish history, ancestry, religion and language. . Who are the Turks? Where does this date begin? In his research, the poet wrote and created his own history in order to protect his culture, national moral values and attacks on him in the great Turkic world. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh welcomed the idea of Ismayil bey Gaspirali, the pride of the Turkic world, "unity in language, action and thought", and expressed confidence in the unity of the Turkic peoples in his work. Why don't we want to be ourselves in Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh's "History" magazine? He wrote in his article: I heard about Ismayil Gaspirali's "Tercuman" newspaper from my teachers. However, the teachers, who unwittingly complied with the requirements of the regime in which we lived, were reluctant to explain the purpose and purpose of this newspaper to us young people. Therefore, the young people of that time did not know about that great figure raised by the Turkic world. The meeting of that great man in the 19th century, "Unity in Language, Thought, and Work," was called the "Reactionary Meeting" because it contradicted the regime that sought to dissolve nations within the Soviet Union. (Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, “Why don't we want to be ourselves?”, Tarih magazine, Ojag, 2001, issue 169, p. 28). The main purpose of Ismail Gaspirali's meetings was enlightenment. He was saying; "The most urgent need of the Turkish country is school and education. The future of the Turkish country depends on schools and education. The condemnation of a ruling nation stems from the disappearance of a condemned nation, from lack of schooling. ” (Ismail Gaspiralinski, “To the Turkic Lands,” Turkish Land, July 1988, vol. 9, p. 53) Enlightenment, a philosophical and historical process throughout the nineteenth century, was the largest movement in the Transcaucasian region, especially in Azerbaijan. Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh, Abbasgulu bey Bakikhanov, Hasanbey Zardabi, Ahmadbey Agaoglu, as a whole, "Molla Nasraddin" and "Fuyuzat" literary schools promoted enlightenment. These personalities and schools were closely connected with the Turkish literary environment. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, who began his career in the middle of the 20th century, referred to the idea of the unity of the Turkic peoples as a basis and said in one of his comments:
Is the European Union happy?
You are in love with this happiness
The father brought Europe to its knees
Do you think Europe is a paradise?
Hope for Western unity
Wasn't your hope disappointed?
How many times did he chew the truth? ... (Bakhtiyar Vahabzade "European Union").
The poet, who had a great love for the Turkic world in his heart, always called on the Turkic world to expand cultural ties between the Turkic peoples in every field with his far-sighted ideas and proposals in this field.Discussion
Prof. Dr. Yavuz Akpinar, who made a great contribution to the recognition of Azerbaijani literature, deserves special mention. Yavuz Akpinar's Kardesh Literary Magazine, by covering Turkish literature outside of Turkey and its great artists in its pages, has in fact filled a large gap in this field and made a great contribution to the history of Turkish literature in this field. This media outlet, which was published with great difficulty, managed to close that huge gap, especially in the field of fraternal literature between 1982 and 1999. When M. Kaplan spoke about the literature of fraternal Turkic peoples, only Ali Yavuz Akpinar's "Kardesh Kalemler" magazine was published. and Kabakli's "Literature" magazine, noting the growing interest in the literature of the fraternal Turkic peoples. "Azeris are our brothers, we come from the same family. It blended with Anatolian literature and Azerbaijani literature. The great poet Fuzuli stands in their place in our literature as well as in our literature. Great poets still grow up in Azerbaijan, which has a rich tradition and culture. ” (Mehmet Kaplan, “A Poem Like a Diamond”, Turkish Literature Magazine, January, 1984, No. 123, p. 65). When he said this, he meant Bakhtiyar Vahabzade first of all. At the same time, Ali Yavuz Akpinar, “A Look at Azerbaijani Literature” (Turkish Literature Magazine 1984, No. 123, p. 70), Azeri Literature in the XIX-XX Centuries, B. Vahabzadeh-Poems 1979, “One Hundred Poets of a Thousand Years” (Anthology of Azerbaijani Poetry, 2000) XXX + 305 p.) And other rich researches and works have rendered very important services for our literary history.
Although Turkey's influence on Azerbaijani literary relations continued in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, later poets, including the great poet of the Turkic world Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, played a key role in the formation of Turkism. The poet, who lived the great Turkish history, literature and history in his work, never separated this love from each other by saying "Turkey is the fatherland, Azerbaijan is the motherland", and always kept it in his heart as the most sublime feeling. It is no coincidence that those who write about Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh in the Turkish press present him as "Dada Gorgud", an elder and poet of the Turkic world.
There are no geographical boundaries for Bakhtiyar Vahabzade's work. He has won the sympathy of readers of different nationalities. Speaking about the power of the poet, the Turkish researcher Ahmet Bican Ercilasun's poems published in Turkey (1979). In the foreword to his book, he says: "His magical words, which give life to the stone, embody not only the creatures of nature, but also the spirit of the thing that man can do."
One after another, Bakhtiyar Vahabzade's poems are presented to Turkish literature, to the Turkish reader who loves him with great love. The poems in the "Voices from the Box" section of the book are poems that were not published in accordance with the requirements of the day, written during the Soviet era. Bakhtiyar Vahabzade won the great love of the fraternal Turkish people with these poems.
Turkish literary critic H. KUKUL writes about the book "A Day Is Worth a Thousand Months" (Turkish Literature Magazine, February 1993, No. 232, p. 32): , With the superior poetic technique of Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, is spreading in an inspiring, but inspiring, exciting, but thought-provoking way. The first poem in the chapter of the book called Man and Time begins with the poem "ALLAHU-AKBAR". The poet recalls the reason for writing this poem: “In 1977, when I was in Istanbul, I woke up with the call to prayer. The sound of "ALLAHU-AKBAR" from the minaret amazed me. I did not wake up all day to the sound of this voice. Thus, I wrote the poem "ALLAHU-AKBAR":
A great way to exalt GOD
The first step is Allahu Akbar
It has struck those who deny the truth
Allahu Akbar is the slap of the truth.
The cries of the heavens are raised up,
Always separates good from evil
In the minarets of power
It is the next song, Allahu Akbar! (Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, "A day is worth a thousand months", Istanbul, 1993, p. 3).
Friend indifferent, cruel, cruel,
There is a lot of pain, not sympathy, the enemy is strong, fate is miserable -
was. Fuzuli's greatest sorrow was that he lived his life with a sense of regret in the world, and the real reason for this was the nature of his time. And the great poet expressed the true face of his time with regret that he ended his life in a world of remorse:
The end of my life is the age of worship,
Passed, alas, with regret in the world.
Ah, this life that I did not enjoy, passed,
Moral pleasure is ignorance.
The root of this pleasure, the "sudden ignorance", was rooted in the character of the time. Fuzuli was saddened by the ignorance of the world from his own world. He complained about the tragedy that separated him from his homeland and friends. Despite the fact that, as a master, he voiced to the whole Eastern world, to the galaxy of poetry, Fuzuli still appealed to his Creator:
O God, you invented me,
Give talent to get perfect.
Or be my master in all things,
Or show me the way to find a master.
The above-mentioned realities of life, which upset Fuzuli, went through the same rules of governing the Soviet system. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh clearly saw and understood the invisible but real face of this system, which was perceived by the power of insight and understanding, the infrastructure of the system from the point of view of a citizen-poet. He was a captive of his ability to see and understand. It was painful to be able to understand what they could understand, there was grief. At this point, he was united with the great Fizuli. In his time, a totalitarian regime was on the throne. The turn of the time was felt at every step. "Spiritual pleasure was in ignorance." Everyone who understood could understand the world of remorse. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh was one of those who lived with great civic pain dictated by the socialist system of the 20th century. He, too, was searching for the answer to the search for truth in the food of his great master Fuzuli. He kept asking unanswered questions in this regard:
The truth! Close to the heart,
Why are you so far away?
Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, like his great master Fuzuli, waged a war against those who "gathered the state with the blood of the liver", "fought for an empty world" and in this way relied on all kinds of violence, invasion, corruption, and found the truth, in the language of their literary heroes revealed the process:
Closing his mouth with the hands of oppression,
I must be the language of the great truth!
Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh was determined to be the language of the great truth with all his life and struggle. His whole life was devoted to the goal of ashug. The great master repeatedly asked M.Fuzuli that:
How much love is in the heart
Sadness, grief, suffering that will cover the heart.
The scourge of love is inseparable from us,
It's like you're in love with us.
The main goal of this love affair was to tear the veils of falsehood and clarify the path of truth. The lesson he learned from the great Fuzuli empowered Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh to express his thoughts and ideas about the truth in the following way:
The truth! You are the greatest song, but
They are deaf to hear you.
The truth, look into his eyes,
The harder it is, the harder it is.
M.Fuzuli conducted the search for the truth, the war of truth during the trial days of the "Karbala incident" on the integrity of Imam Hussein's faith, on the martyrdom of Imam Hussein. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh appreciated the place in history of the environment where the holy blood shed on this road - the blood of martyrs - was shed:
Blood flowing in the way of justice
The trail was leafing through the dates.
The truth is always these victims
He thought with his mind, looked with his eyes.
Prominent literary critic Abbas Zamanov writes in his article "Fuzuli and Sabir" that when we read Sabir's works referring to Fuzuli's poetry, the greatness of Fuzuli's art comes to life again: hand in hand, they fought shoulder to shoulder against the horrors of the world of ignorance and superstition, which humiliated the human person, and fought together against the evil forces that hinder the spiritual development of the people ”(Abbas Zamanov,“ Friends of Deeds ”, Baku, 1979, p. 14).
It is safe to say that acquaintance with the poetry of the national poet Bakhtiyar Vahabzade from the Fizuli tradition gives the same impression. In any case, you have no doubt that Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh was united with Fuzuli's pride and Fuzuli's worldview in his struggle against all kinds of despotism and the system. Both powerful poets join hands and wage a joint war against the environment that "humiliates the human person." In the person of Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, a poet-citizen, Fuzuli is reborn, re-actualized and helps to improve and become wiser of human nature with his grief.
M. Fuzuli writes in the preface of "Matlaul-etigad": "I looked at existence with thought and attention. Then I walked with the steps of thought, contemplation, and contemplation, where I avoided laziness and sickness when I was engaged in something of every kind, of every kind of class, of every kind of class, of every class of individuals, of every individual involuntarily, and to waste my life suddenly. I didn't want to. "
It is a very perfect thought and a careful look at existence. Such an example of vision reappeared in our 20th century poetry in the person of Bakhtiyar Vahabzade. Both Fuzuli's and Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh's ideas and opinions on the concept of existence and non-existence intersect at the same point. Both poets have a strong love of life, love of life and desire for freedom. In both poets, the unity of reason and feeling is equally bright. Both see the world as a being, a voice, blocking the path of ignorance. Both adhere to the belief that "it is good to be a person who understands the world." The immortal poetry of both of them is calculated for tomorrow and does not lose its value and freshness. Both poets are living people, in the true sense of the word. The reason for this nationwide love is, first of all, the immortal ideas propagated in the works of both great poets, their proud call to the world and humanity to a bright future full of divine love and devotion, and their noble hearts beating for justice and freedom. Both are literally in love with life. In the words of academician Mammad Jafar: "A lover of life and cognition - this name is very appropriate for Fizuli."
We add the same opinion, from the height of position: "Lover of life and cognition - this name is very appropriate for Bakhtiyar Vahabzade."
It was the love of life and cognition that brought the 16th century genius Fuzuli to the 20th century Bakhtiyar Vahabzade phenomenon!
Fuzuli accepted the sufferings of the "day of grief" as a gift from the world of love. The loneliness of the "Day of Sorrow" looked at the world from the point of view of time:
On the day of grief, my companions were drenched in tears,
I did not have a single tear to wipe away.
The genius poet was not unaware of the futility of seeking a solution to the world of secret grief revealed to the world:
I have a thousand sorrows in my heart that it is impossible to hide,
It is also a grief that Afghans should not act on the body.
No matter how difficult the pain, there is a cure in the world,
What a difficult pain to love, you can not take medication.
The concept of grief was the colorful paints of Fizuli pen, a means of comparisons, multi-colored:
Please, drunk, you do not know what grief is,
What draws grief to the world, what knows what grief is.
Fuzuli considered sorrow, grief and grief as a means of power that brings human thought to the world of wisdom and virtue.
People's poet Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, as his wise master, uses the thought of sorrow and grief as an elixir of human wisdom.
Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, like his master M. Fuzuli, thinks that grief is not only a tragedy of a wise man, but also a reliable key to thought and thought. The "historical grief" that passed through Fuzuli's work and was perceived by the time as a symbol of purity, and even loyalty, has a magnificent moment in the life of Bakhtiyar Vahabzade. This grief "awakens man in man." Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh's thinking was also designed to be able to draw grief with the power of his mind, which is typical of Fizuli. In this sense he:
I saw that there was no one to grieve,
I came to be the letter of grief -
He is always with Fuzuli, who always faces the difficulties of the path of love.
"It is a great misfortune not to grieve for the world," said Fuzuli, who said that thinking about the Hereafter is a difficult and painful torment.
Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh was, in fact, a master of the same way of life, way of life and thought. They are artists who are aware of the virtue of the thought, "Whoever is not happy with grief, who is not relieved of suffering, his comfort turns into sorrow, and his joy into sorrow."
Both Fuzuli and Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh considered pain to be the investment of poetry. They were aware that the true path of art is through sorrow. As F.B. Kocharli, the founder of our literary criticism, wrote: "Fuzuli ... was created in the world-humanity to take the burdens of the miserable and the miserable and to burn as the oppressed". Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh's admiration for Fuzuli's personality and poetry is inextricably linked with this great poet's mission and way of life.
In exchange for the vital value given to grief and sorrow, we can say that Bakhtiyar Vahabzade is half the same as the great Fuzuli in this respect. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh is an artist who passed the world and worldview of Fuzuli with special admiration from his poet-citizen shirt. He saw Fuzuli, whom he knew and loved, even in the fate of Majnun, who opened his eyes to the world to suffer the world, and sought Fuzuli. For this reason, he wrote in his article "Amazement, O idol": "Majnun came to the world to suffer the sufferings of the world. Majnun began to cry as soon as he was born ... It is in Majnun's nature to immerse himself in the sorrows of the world and to be free. Nature, along with pain and suffering, resisted this pain and suffering in order to suffer it. His resistance is in balance with his suffering ... All creatures die, but not all creatures are capable of suffering. ” Don't suffer Majnun, so there is an example of Fuzuli, who understands him to some extent, and Bakhtiyar Vahabzade.
Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh noted in his poem "Shabi-Hijran" that M.Fuzuli, whom he called "a poet of deeds and dreams", repeatedly confessed that he was amazed by the magic of the divine word. The great poet first of all regarded the word as a means of revealing the most hidden feelings and secrets of man to the people, as a mystery itself, sometimes as an incomparable beauty that shines through a veil and burns hearts with one glance. He was aware that:
Like his master Fuzuli, he trusted the words and experiences of this endless, resurrecting love, wrote new shades of the genius master's admiration for the word in his poem "Shabi-Hijran" and also gave Fuzuli an exceptionally large share of this admiration. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh was as attached to Fizuli as Mevlana's divine attachment to Shams Tabrizi. He was a fan. Whatever the secret of art, he saw Fuzuli in front of him and expressed these thoughts in the immortal language of poetry:
This was an artistic expression of Bakhtiyar Vahabzade's admiration for Fuzuli's genius. At the journalistic level, he is following his words step by step in an artistic way: “The voice of Fuzuli, who turned humanity into God and love into religion, penetrates all times and calls us to truth, loyalty, justice, greatness, greatness and greatness. He lives with us ... There are poets that we like. There are poets that we love, and there are poets that we are silent in the face of their art, we fall under its spell. As Fuzuli himself said: "The image that sees the state of mind imagines me." Thus, the greatest respect for Fuzuli's poetry, Fuzuli's memory is our astonishment and the silence born of this astonishment ”(Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, from M.Fuzuli's speech on the 500th anniversary, (Bilkent University, Turkey), Time and I, Baku-1999, p. 225).
Those who consider their relatives a nation ...
In his thoughts from this line, the poet expresses his love for his homeland in his native language, in the language of Muhammad and Leyla.
The idea (and right) of the immortality of Fuzuli art and madness is a place of comfort for Bakhtiyar Vahabzade. The poet was happy to be able to share his thoughts with his great master. The internal conversation with Fuzuli, in fact, perpetuates the perfect, wise image of Bakhtiyar Vahabzade. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh was wiser and more perfect in his dialogue with his great master, that is, Fuzuliyan:
When Muhammad came to the world,
When he left, they said he had left Fizuli.
Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh actually created his "Leyli and Majnun" in "Shabi-Hijran". This is primarily due to the fact that in "Leyli and Majnun" Bakhtiyar Vahabzade saw the real Turkish thought, the real face of a real Turkish man and was proud of it: "... In this saga, in addition to the Arab Majnun, we see our own Majnun. Fuzuli romanticized the well-known legend and connected it to the land and the life of the nation. This saga is our own fruit sprouting from our lands. Here we see the splendor of our mountains, smell our meadows, hear the sound of our winds, the sound of our waters.
Doctor of Philology, Azada Rustamova writes: “The sphere of influence of Fuzuli's creativity was comprehensive, capacious, from the time of the poet's life to the present day, very powerful artists of the Middle East and especially Turkic-speaking peoples read from him and continued the traditions of Fuzuli art. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Azerbaijani poets such as Amani, Govsi, Saib benefited from the Fizuli literary school. The rich system of ideas and images in his works, poetic style features were the main sources of Vagif and Vidadi's legacy in the 18th century. The artistic and logical power had a great influence on our poets of the 19th and 20th centuries ”(Azada Rustamova, Foreword to the selected works of M.Fuzuli, Baku, Azerneshr, 1988, p.19).Conclusion
Among the followers of Fuzuli literary school are Uzbek Ahsani, Vafan, Turdi, Nashati, Makhmur, Ashahi Firqat, Zovgi, Turkmen Makhtumkulu, Kamina, Nur Mohammad, Turkish poets Sheikh Galib, Bagi, Nafi, Nadim, Tofig Fikret, Abdulhaq Hamid He also irrevocably promoted the feelings of spiritual and national freedom as an important idea. It is safe to say that the name of the national poet Bakhtiyar Vahabzade as a follower of this school does not belong to the ranks of "and others", but in all cases comes to the fore. The charm, color and relevance of Fuzuli art for all periods is an invaluable example, an inexhaustible treasure for the work of Bakhtiyar Vahabzade.
Such is the fate of those who drink water from the heights of Fizuli, from the Fizuli spring, and this is their worldview. Fuzuli lives in these thoughts. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh modernizes the world of ideas with the image of Fuzuli, who is eternal in the world.
1. "Autumn Thoughts", Istanbul 1993.
2. Abbas Zamanov, "Friends of deeds", Baku, 1979, p. 14.
3. Azada Rustamova, Foreword to the selected works of M.Fuzuli, Baku, Azerneshr, 1988, p.19.
4. Anthology of Azerbaijani poetry, 2000 XXX + 305 p.
5. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh “Why don't we want to be ourselves?”, Tarih magazine, Ojag, 2001, issue 169, p. 28.
6. Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, “A day is worth a thousand months”, Istanbul, 1993, p.3.
7. Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, “Flag of spirituality”, “Literary newspaper”, February 17, 1995.
8. Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, from the presentation ceremony of the Elisam Award, Ankara.
9. Ismail Gaspiralinski, "To the Turkish people", Turkish country, July 1988, volume 9, p. 53.
10. Mehmet Kaplan “A poem like a diamond”, Turkish Literature Magazine, January, 1984, issue 123, page 65.
11. Interview with Sevinj Çokum Bahtiyar Vahapzade. Turkey, December 20, 1989, page 15.
12. Turkish world, language and literature magazine, 2017. Page, 34.
13. Bakhtiyar of the Turkic world ”collection, part II, 2002, p.230.
14. Journal of Turkish Literature, February 1993, issue 232, page 32.
15. Journal of Turkish Literature 1984, issue 123, page 70
16. Time and I, Baku-1999, p. 225.